.
Vascular Plants of the Gorge at
Buttermilk Falls State Park (Ithaca, NY)
.

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Checklist by Plant Family

GT = gorge trail, RT = rim trail, NC = north crest,

VC = visitor center, VL = vacant lot, O = outlet, PK = lower park
.
* See note below regarding synonymy and nomenclature.
.

abc

 

Adoxaceae (syn. Caprifoliaceae)

 

 

 

Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli - common elderberry - GT

 

Sambucus racemosa L. - red elderberry - GT, RT

 

Viburnum acerifolium L. - maple-leaved viburnum - GT, RT, NC

 

Viburnum dentatum L. - arrowwood - GT

 

 

 

Alismataceae

 

 

 

Alisma subcordatum Raf. - southern water plantain - GT
     
    (syn. Alisma plantago-aquatica)

 

 

 

Anacardiaceae

 

 

 

Rhus aromatica Aiton - fragrant sumac - RT

 

Rhus typhina (L.) - staghorn sumac - GT, VC, O

 

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze - poison ivy - GT, RT, VL, VC
        
(syn. Rhus toxicodendron subsp. radicans)

 

 

 

Apiaceae

 

 

 

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. - honewort - GT, RT

 

Daucus carota L. - Queen Anne's lace or wild carrot - VL, VC, O

 

Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke - sweet cicely - GT, RT

 

Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. - aniseroot - RT

 

Pastinaca sativa L. - wild parsnip - GT

 

Sanicula canadensis L. - Canada snakeroot - RT

 

Sanicula marilandica L. - black snakeroot - RT

 

Sanicula odorata (Raf.) K.M. Pryer & L.R. Phillippe - clustered snakeroot - GT, RT

 

Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. - Japanese hedge-parsley - VL

 

Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch - golden alexanders - VL

 

 

 

Apocynaceae

 

 

 

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. - spreading dogbane - RT, NC

 

Apocynum cannabinum L. - Indian hemp - VC, O

 

Asclepias syriaca L. - common milkweed - VC, O

 

Asclepias tuberosa L. - butterfly weed - NC

 

Vinca minor L. - common periwinkle or myrtle - GT, VL

 

Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich - pale swallowwort - GT, RT, VC
        
(syn. Cynanchum rossicum) - invasive

 

 

 

Araceae

 

 

 

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott - jack-in-the-pulpit - GT, RT, NC

 

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt. - skunk cabbage - RT, NC

 

 

 

Araliaceae

 

 

 

Aralia nudicaulis L. - wild sarsaparilla - GT, RT, NC

 

Aralia racemosa L. - spikenard - GT, RT

 

 

 

Aristolochiaceae

 

 

 

Asarum canadense L. - wild ginger - RT

 

 

 

Asparagaceae (syn. Ruscaceae)

 

 

 

Maianthemum canadense Desf. - Canada mayflower - GT, RT

 

Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link - false Solomon's-seal - GT, RT, NC
        
(syn. Smilacina racemosa)

 

Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh - hairy Solomon’s seal - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Asphodelaceae (syn. Hemerocallidaceae)

 

 

 

Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. - orange day lily - VL, O

 

 

 

Aspleniaceae

 

 

 

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Britton - ebony spleenwort - RT, NC

 

Asplenium trichomanes L. - maidenhair spleenwort - GT, RT

 

 

 

Asteraceae

 

 

 

Achillea millefolium L. - yarrow - NC

 

Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H. Rob. - white snakeroot - GT, RT  (syn. Eupatorium rugosum)

 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. - ragweed - VL

 

Antennaria neglecta Greene - field pussytoes - RT

 

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson - plantain-leaved pussytoes - GT, RT, NC

 

Anthemis arvensis L. - field chamomile - VC

 

Anthemis cotula L. - mayweed - VL

 

Arctium lappa L. - greater burdock - GT, VL, O

 

Arctium minus Bernh. - lesser burdock - GT

 

Artemisia vulgaris L. - mugwort - VL

 

Bellis perennis L. - English daisy - VL

 

Bidens frondosa L. - beggar ticks - GT

 

Centaurea nigrescens Willd. - tyrol knapweed - VL

 

Centaurea stoebe L. - spotted knapweed - VL

 

Cichorium intybus L. - chicory - RT, VL

 

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. - creeping thistle or Canada thistle - VL

 

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. - bull thistle - VL

 

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist - horseweed - VL, VC   (syn. Erigeron canadensis)

 

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench - purple coneflower - VL

 

Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. - pilewort - GT, VL

 

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. - annual daisy fleabane - GT, RT, NC, VL

 

Erigeron philadelphicus L. - Philadelphia fleabane - GT, RT, VL

 

Erigeron pulchellus Michx. - Robin's plantain - RT

 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - boneset - GT

 

Eurybia divaricata (L.) Nesom - white wood aster - GT, RT, NC  (syn. Aster divaricatus)

 

Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass. - large-leaved aster - GT, RT  (syn. Aster macrophyllus)

 

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. - grass-leaved goldenrod - O  (syn. Solidago graminifolia)

 

Eutrochium maculatum  (L.) E.E. Lamont - spotted Joe-Pye weed - GT, O
        
(syn. Eupatorium maculatum)

  Eutrochium purpureum  (L.) E.E. Lamont  -  sweet-scented Joe-Pye weed - VL
  Galinsoga quadriradiata  Ruiz & Pavon - quickweed - VL
 

Helianthus tuberosus L. - Jerusalem artichoke - GT, RT

 

Hieracium murorum L. - wall hawkweed - GT, NC

 

Hieracium paniculatum L. - panicled hawkweed - RT

 

Hieracium venosum L. - rattlesnake weed - RT

 

Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. - tall blue lettuce - GT, RT

 

Lactuca serriola L. - prickly lettuce - VL, VC

 

Lapsana communis L. - nipplewort - GT, RT, VL

 

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. - oxeye daisy - VL, NC
        
(syn. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)

 

Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. - white rattlesnake-root - GT   (syn. Prenanthes alba)

 

Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook. - tall white lettuce - GT   (syn. Prenanthes altissima)

  Nabalus trifoliolatus  Cass. - gall-of-the-earth - RT   (syn. Prenanthes trifoliolata)
 

Picris hieracioides L. - oxtongue - GT, VL

 

Pilosella aurantiaca (L.) F.W. Schultz & Schultz-Bip. devil’s paintbrush or orange hawkweed - VL     (syn. Hieracium aurantiacum)

 

Pilosella caespitosa (Dumort.) P.D. Sell & C. West - yellow hawkweed - VC
     
    (syn. Hieracium pratense)

 

Pilosella flagellaris (Willd.) Arv.-Touv. - whip hawkweed - VL
        
(syn. Hieracium flagellare)

 

Pilosella piloselloides (Vill.) Soják - glaucous-leaved hawkweed - NC
        
(syn. Hieracium piloselloides)

 

Rudbeckia hirta L. - black-eyed susan - VL

 

Rudbeckia laciniata L. - green-headed coneflower - GT

 

Rudbeckia triloba L. - thin-leaved coneflower - VL

 

Solidago altissima L. - tall goldenrod - GT, VL

 

Solidago arguta Aiton - sharp-leaved goldenrod - RT, O

 

Solidago bicolor L. - silverrod - GT, RT, NC

 

Solidago caesia L. - blue-stem goldenrod or wreath goldenrod - GT, RT, VL

 

Solidago flexicaulis L. - zigzag goldenrod - GT, RT, VL, NC

 

Solidago gigantea Ait. - late goldenrod or smooth goldenrod - VL, O
        
(syn. Solidago serotina)

 

Solidago juncea Ait. - early goldenrod - RT, NC

 

Solidago nemoralis Ait. - gray goldenrod - RT, NC

 

Solidago rugosa Mill. - rough-stemmed goldenrod or wrinkled-leaved g. - VL

 

Sonchus arvensis L. - field sow-thistle or tall sow-thistle - GT

 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill - spiny-leaved sow-thistle - GT, VL

 

Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) Nesom - heart-leaved aster - GT, RT
         
(syn. Aster cordifolius)

 

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom - panicled aster - VL
        
(syn. Aster simplex)

 

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. & D. Löve - calico aster or goblet aster - GT, RT, VL   (syn. Aster lateriflorus)

 

Symphyotrichum lowrieanum (Porter) Nesom - Lowrie’s aster - RT, NC
       
(syn. Aster lowrieanus)

 

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom - New England aster - O
       
(syn. Aster novae-angliae)

 

Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom - old field aster - GT, VL, VC, O
       
(syn. Aster pilosus)

 

Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nesom - crooked-stemmed aster - GT, VL   (syn. Aster prenanthoides)

 

Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.) Nesom - wavy-leaved aster - RT, VL
       
(syn. Aster undulatus)

 

Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) Nesom - arrow-leaved aster - RT
        
(syn. Aster sagittifolius)

 

Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers - common dandelion - GT, VL

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Schultz-Bipontinus - scentless chamomile - O

 

Tussilago farfara L. - coltsfoot - GT, VL

 

 

 

Balsaminaceae

 

 

 

Impatiens capensis Meerb. - spotted touch-me-not - GT

 

Impatiens pallida Nutt. - pale touch-me-not - GT

 

 

 

Berberidaceae

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergii DC. - Japanese barberry - GT, RT, NC, VL

 

Berberis vulgaris L. - common barberry - RT, O

 

Caulophyllum giganteum (Farw.) Loconte & Blackwell - early blue cohosh - RT

 

Podophyllum peltatum L. - may apple - RT, NC

 

 

 

Betulaceae

 

 

 

Betula alleghaniensis Britt. - yellow birch - GT

 

Betula lenta L. - black birch - GT, RT

 

Betula papyrifera Marsh. - paper birch - RT

 

Carpinus caroliniana Walter - musclewood or ironwood - RT

 

Corylus americana Walt. - American hazelnut - RT, NC

 

Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch - hop hornbeam or ironwood - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

Hackelia virginiana (L.) I.M. Johnston - Virginia stickseed - GT, RT

 

Hydrophyllum virginianum L. - Virginia waterleaf - RT

 

Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers. ex Link - eastern bluebells - VL, VC, NC

 

Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill - field forget-me-not - VL

 

Myosotis scorpioides L. - true forget-me-not - GT

 

 

 

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

Alliaria petiolata - (M. Bieberstein) Cavara & Grande - garlic mustard - RT, VL, O

 

Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. - common winter cress - VL

 

Borodinia laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) P.J. Alexander & Windham - smooth rock cress - GT, RT 

         (syn. Arabis laevigata)
 

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. - mustard greens - VL

 

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood - toothwort - GT, VL    (syn. Dentaria diphylla)

 

Cardamine hirsuta L. - hairy bitter-cress - VC

 

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. - Pennsylvania bitter cress - GT

 

Hesperis matronalis L. - dame's rocket - GT, RT, VL, VC

 

Lepidium campestre (L.) Ait. f. - field pepperweed - VL

 

 

 

Campanulaceae

 

 

 

Campanula americana L. - tall bellflower - VL

 

Lobelia inflata L. - Indian tobacco - RT

 

Lobelia siphilitica L. - great blue lobelia - GT, NC

 

 

 

Cannabaceae

 

 

 

Celtis occidentalis L. - northern hackberry - GT, RT, O

 

 

 

Caprifoliaceae

 

 

 

Diervilla lonicera P. Mill. - bush-honeysuckle - GT

 

Dipsacus fullonum L. - wild teasel - O - (syn. D. sylvestris)

 

Lonicera ×bella Zabel - hybrid honeysuckle - GT, RT

 

Lonicera canadensis Bartr. ex Marsh. - American fly honeysuckle - GT

  Lonicera japonica Thunb. - Japanese honeysuckle - VL
 

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder - Amur honeysuckle - NC

 

Lonicera morrowii Gray - Morrow's honeysuckle - GT, RT, VC

 

 

 

Caryophyllaceae

 

 

 

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. - thyme-leaved sandwort - VC, VL

 

Dianthus armeria L. - Deptford pink - VL, NC

 

Lychnis flos-cuculi L. - ragged robin - VL   (syn. Silene flos-cuculi )

 

Silene latifolia Poir. - white campion - O  (syn. Lychnis alba)

  Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke - bladder campion - RT
 

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. - common chickweed - RT

 

 

 

Celastraceae

 

 

 

Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. - oriental bittersweet - RT, VL, NC  invasive

 

Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. - burning-bush - VL

 

 

 

Colchicaceae

 

 

 

Uvularia perfoliata L. - perfoliate bellwort - RT

 

 

 

Convolvulaceae

   
  Calystegia sepium  (L.) R. Br. - hedge bindweed - O, VC
   
 

Cornaceae

 

 

 

Cornus alternifolia L. f. - pagoda dogwood or alternate-leaved dogwood - GT, RT, NC

 

Cornus florida L. - flowering dogwood - RT

 

Cornus racemosa Lam. - gray dogwood - GT, RT, VC, O

 

Cornus rugosa Lam. - round-leaved dogwood - GT

 

 

 

Cupressaceae

 

 

 

Juniperus virginiana L. - eastern red cedar - RT, NC

 

Thuja occidentalis L. - northern white cedar or arbor vitae - GT, RT, VC

 

 

 

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. - porcupine sedge - VL

 

Carex laxiflora Lam. - loose-flowered sedge - RT, NC

 

Carex pensylvanica Lam. - Pennsylvania sedge - RT

 

Carex platyphylla  J. Carey - broad-leaved sedge - GT, RT

  Carex radiata  (Wahlenb.) Small - eastern star sedge - RT
 

Carex retrorsa  Schwein. - retrorse sedge - VL

 

Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. - pointed broom sedge - VL

 

Carex sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. - bur-reed sedge - RT

 

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. - fox sedge - VL

 

Cyperus strigosus L. - false nutsedge - VL

 

 

 

Dennstaedtiaceae

 

 

 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn - bracken fern - RT

 

 

 

Dryopteridaceae

 

 

 

Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs - spinulose woodfern - RT
        
(syn. Dryopteris spinulosa)

 

Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Gray - evergreen woodfern - GT, RT
        
(syn. Dryopteris austriaca var. intermedia)

 

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray - marginal woodfern - GT, RT, NC

 

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott - Christmas fern - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Elaeagnaceae

 

 

 

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. - autumn olive - GT, RT, O, PK

 

 

 

Equisetaceae

 

 

 

Equisetum arvense L. - field horsetail - O

 

Equisetum hyemale L. - common scouring rush - NC

 

 

 

Ericaceae

 

 

 

Epigaea repens L. - trailing arbutus - RT

 

Gaultheria procumbens L. - wintergreen - RT

 

Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch - black huckleberry - RT

 

Hypopitys monotropa Crantz - pinesap - GT

 

Monotropa uniflora L. - Indian pipe - GT, RT, NC

 

Rhododendron prinophyllum (Small) Millais - early azalea - RT
        
(syn. Rhododendron nudiflorum)

 

Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. - lowbush blueberry or early low blueberry - RT, NC

 

Vaccinium pallidum Ait. - hillside blueberry - RT   (syn. Vaccinium vacillans)

 

Vaccinium stamineum L. - deerberry - RT

 

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

Acalypha rhomboidea Raf. - common three-seeded mercury - VL

 

Euphorbia maculata L. - spotted spurge - VL

 

 

 

Fabaceae

 

 

 

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. - hog peanut - GT, RT

 

Cercis canadensis L. - redbud - RT

 

Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd - yellow-wood - O

 

Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. - showy tick-trefoil - RT

 

Gleditsia triacanthos L. - honey locust - VC

  Hylodesmum glutinosum  (Muhl. ex Willd.) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill - pointed-leaved tick-trefoil - RT
 

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. - hairy bush-clover - RT

 

Lotus corniculatus L. - bird’s-foot trefoil - VL

 

Medicago lupulina L. - black medic - VL, VC

 

Melilotus albus Medik. - white sweet-clover - GT, VL, NC

 

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. - yellow sweet-clover - RT, VL, O

 

Robinia pseudoacacia L. - black locust - VL, O

 

Securigera varia (L.) Lassen - crown vetch - VL, O   (syn. Coronilla varia)

 

Trifolium aureum Pollich - large hop clover - VL   (syn. Trifolium agrarium)

 

Trifolium dubium Sibthorp - small hop clover - VC

 

Trifolium pratense L. - red clover - VL, NC

 

Trifolium repens L. - white clover - VL

 

 

 

Fagaceae

 

 

 

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. - American chestnut - RT, NC

 

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. - American beech - GT, RT

 

Quercus alba L. - white oak - GT, RT, NC

 

Quercus coccinea Münchhausen - scarlet oak - RT

 

Quercus macrocarpa Michaux - burr oak - VC

 

Quercus montana Willd. - chestnut oak - GT, RT, NC   (syn. Quercus prinus)

 

Quercus rubra L. - red oak - GT, RT, NC    (syn. Quercus borealis)

 

Quercus velutina Lam. - black oak - RT, NC, O

 

 

 

Geraniaceae

 

 

 

Geranium maculatum L. - wild geranium - RT

 

Geranium robertianum L. - herb Robert - GT, RT, VL

 

 

 

Grossulariaceae

 

 

 

Ribes cynosbati L. - prickly gooseberry - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Hamamelidaceae

 

 

 

Hamamelis virginiana L. - witch hazel - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Hydrangeaceae

 

 

 

Philadelphus pubescens Loisel. - mock orange - VL, O

 

 

 

Hypericaceae

 

 

 

Hypericum perforatum L. - common St. Johnswort - NC

 

Hypericum punctatum Lam. - spotted St. John’s wort - RT

 

 

 

Iridaceae

 

 

 

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene - mountain blue-eyed grass - RT

 

 

 

Juglandaceae

 

 

 

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch - bitternut hickory - GT, RT

 

Carya glabra (P. Mill.) Sweet - pignut hickory - RT, NC

 

Carya ovata (P. Mill.) K. Koch - shagbark hickory - GT, RT

 

Juglans nigra L. - black walnut - RT

 

 

 

Juncaceae

 

 

 

Juncus tenuis Willd. - path rush - RT, VL, NC

 

Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej. - common wood-rush – RT, NC

 

 

 

Lamiaceae

 

 

  Agastache nepetoides  (L.) Kuntze - yellow giant hyssop -  n/a
 

Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth. - hairy wood-mint - VL

 

Clinopodium vulgare L. - wild basil - RT, NC   (syn. Saturja vulgaris)

 

Collinsonia canadensis L. - horse balm - RT

 

Glechoma hederacea L. - gill-over-the-ground - GT, VL   (syn. Nepeta hederacea)

 

Lamium purpureum L. - purple dead nettle - VL

 

Leonurus cardiaca L. - motherwort - GT, VL

 

Nepeta cataria L. - catnip - VL

 

Prunella vulgaris L. - heal-all or selfheal - GT, RT, VL

 

Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jackson ex B.L. Robins. & Fern.

          Virginia mountain mint - VL
 

Teucrium canadense L. - American germander - O

 

 

 

Lauraceae

 

 

 

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume - spicebush - GT, RT, NC

 

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees - sassafras - NC

 

 

 

Lythraceae

 

 

 

Lythrum salicaria L. - purple loosestrife - GT

 

 

 

Magnoliaceae

 

 

 

Liriodendron tulipifera L. - tulip tree or yellow poplar - GT, RT, VC

 

Magnolia acuminata  (L.) L. - cucumber magnolia - RT, PK

 

 

 

Malvaceae

 

 

  Abutilon theophrasti  Medikus - velvet leaf - VC
 

Malva moschata L. - musk mallow - VL

 

Tilia americana L. - American basswood - GT, RT, O

 

 

 

Melanthiaceae

 

 

 

Trillium erectum  L. - red trillium or wake robin - GT, RT, NC

 

Trillium grandiflorum  (Michx.) Salisb. - large-flowered white trillium - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Menispermaceae

 

 

 

Menispermum canadense L. - moonseed - RT

 

 

 

Moraceae

 

 

 

Morus alba L. - common mulberry - RT, VL, O

 

 

 

Oleaceae

 

 

 

Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl - weeping forsythia - GT, VL

 

Fraxinus americana L. - white ash - GT, RT, NC

 

Fraxinus nigra Marsh. - black ash - GT

 

Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc. - border privet - GT, RT   Invasive

 

Ligustrum vulgare L. - common privet - O

 

Syringa vulgaris L. - common lilac - VL

 

 

 

Onagraceae

 

 

 

Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill - enchanter's nightshade - GT
        
(syn. Circaea lutetiana; C. quadrisulcata)

 

Epilobium ciliatum  Raf. - fringed willow-herb - VL

 

Oenothera biennis L. - common evening primrose - GT, VL

  Oenothera perennis - L.  - small sundrops  - RT
 

 

 

Onocleaceae

 

 

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod. - ostrich fern - RT, NC

 

Onoclea sensibilis L. - sensitive fern - GT, RT

 

 

 

Ophioglossaceae

 

 

 

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. - rattlesnake fern - RT

 

 

 

Orchidaceae

 

 

  Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. odontorhiza  (Willd.) Poir. -  fall coral-root  -  n/a
 

Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz - helleborine - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Orobanchaceae

 

 

 

Epifagus virginiana (L.) W.P.C. Barton - beech drops - RT

 

Melampyrum lineare Desr. - cow wheat - RT, NC

 

 

 

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

Oxalis stricta L. - yellow wood sorrel - VL, NC   (syn. Oxalis europaea)

 

 

 

Papaveraceae

 

 

 

Chelidonium majus L. - greater celendine - VL

 

 

 

Phrymaceae

 

 

 

Phryma leptostachya L. - lopseed - GT, RT

 

 

 

Phytolaccaceae

 

 

 

Phytolacca americana L. - pokeweed - GT

 

 

 

Pinaceae

 

 

 

Picea abies (L.) Karst. - Norway spruce - O

 

Pinus resinosa Ait. - red pine - RT

 

Pinus strobus L. - white pine - GT, RT, NC

 

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. - eastern hemlock - GT, RT, NC, VL, VC

 

 

 

Plantaginaceae

   
 

Chelone glabra L. - white turtlehead - GT

 

Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. - hairy beardtongue - NC

 

Plantago lanceolata L. - English plantain - GT, VL, NC

 

Plantago major L. - common plantain - GT, VL

 

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. - water speedwell - GT

 

Veronica chamaedrys L. - germander speedwell or bird’s-eye speedwell - O

 

Veronica officinalis L. - common speedwell - RT, NC

 

Veronica persica Poir. - Persian speedwell - VL, VC

 

 

 

Platanaceae

 

 

 

Platanus occidentalis L. - eastern sycamore - GT, RT, VL, O

 

 

 

Poaceae

 

 

 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. - sweet vernal grass - NC

 

Bromus nottowayanus  Fernald - satin brome  -  n/a

 

Dactylis glomerata L. - orchard grass - VL, RT

 

Danthonia compressa Austin ex Peck - flattened oatgrass - RT

 

Elymus hystrix L. - bottle-brush grass - VL   (syn. Hystrix patula)

 

Elymus riparius Wieg. - eastern riverbank wild rye - RT

  Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. -  fowl manna grass  -  GT
 

Phleum pratense L. - common Timothy - VL

 

Poa compressa L. - Canada bluegrass - NC

 

Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. - tall rye grass – VL
        
(syn. Festuca arundinaceus; tall fescue)

 

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash - little bluestem - NC

 

Triticum aestivum L. - wheat - VL

 

 

 

Polemoniaceae

 

 

 

Phlox subulata L. - moss phlox - NC

 

Polemonium reptans L. - Jacob’s ladder - VL

 

 

 

Polygalaceae

 

 

 

Polygala verticillata L. - whorled milkwort - NC

 

Polygaloides paucifolia (Willd.) J.R. Abbott - gaywings or fringed polygala - RT, NC
        
(syn. Polygala paucifolia)

 

 

 

Polygonaceae

 

 

 

Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S.F. Gray - dock-leaved smartweed - VL

 

Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray - lady’s thumb - VL   (syn. Polygonum persicaria)

 

Persicaria virginiana (L.) Gaertn. - jumpseed - GT, RT
         
(syn. Polygonum virginianum; Tovara virginiana)

 

Rumex crispus L. - curly dock - VL

 

Rumex obtusifolius L. - broad-leaved dock - VL

 

 

 

Polypodiaceae

 

 

 

Polypodium virginianum L. - rock polypody fern - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Primulaceae

 

 

 

Lysimachia ciliata L. - fringed loosestrife – RT, VL

 

Lysimachia nummularia L. - moneywort - GT, VL

 

 

 

Pteridaceae

 

 

 

Adiantum pedatum L. - maidenhair fern - GT

 

 

 

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

Actaea pachypoda Ell. - white baneberry, doll's-eyes - GT, RT, NC   (syn. Actaea alba)

 

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. - red baneberry - GT, RT, NC

 

Anemone virginiana L. - thimbleweed - GT, RT, O

 

Aquilegia canadensis L. - wild columbine - GT, RT

 

Caltha palustris L. - marsh marigold - RT

 

Clematis virginiana L. - virgin's bower - RT

 

Hepatica acutiloba DC. - sharp-lobed hepatica - GT, RT
         
(syn. Anemone acutiloba; Hepatica nobilis var. acuta)

 

Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl. - round-lobed hepatica - RT, NC
        
(syn. Anemone americana; Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa)

 

Ranunculus abortivus L. - kidney-leaved buttercup - GT, RT, VL

 

Ranunculus acris L. - tall buttercup - GT

 

Ranunculus bulbosus L. - bulbous buttercup - RT

 

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. - hooked buttercup - GT, RT

 

Ranunculus repens L. - creeping buttercup - VL

 

Thalictrum dioicum L. - early meadow rue - GT

 

Thalictrum pubescens Pursh - tall meadow rue - GT   (syn. Thalictrum polygamum)

 

Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & Boivin - rue anemone - RT
        
(syn. Anemonella thalictroides)

 

 

 

Rhamnaceae

 

 

 

Rhamnus cathartica L. - European buckthorn - GT, RT, NC

 

 

 

Rosaceae

 

 

 

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. - common agrimony - RT

 

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. - downy shadbush - RT, NC

 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne - wild strawberry - RT

 

Geum canadense Jacq. - white avens - GT, RT, VL

 

Geum fragarioides (Michx.) Smedmark - barren wild strawberry - RT
        
(syn. Waldsteinia fragarioides)

 

Potentilla argentea L. - silvery cinquefoil - VL

 

Potentilla norvegica L. - rough cinquefoil - VL

 

Potentilla recta L. - rough-fruited cinquefoil - VC, PK

 

Potentilla simplex Michx. - common cinquefoil - RT

 

Prunus avium (L.) L. - sweet cherry - RT

 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. - wild black cherry - GT, RT

 

Prunus virginiana L. - choke cherry - GT, RT, VL

 

Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr. - multiflora rose - GT, RT, VL, VC, O

 

Rosa virginiana Mill. - Virginia rose - VC

 

Rubus allegheniensis Porter - common blackberry - VC

 

Rubus occidentalis L. - black raspberry - GT, RT, VL, NC

 

Rubus odoratus L. - purple-flowering raspberry - GT

 

Rubus phoenicolasius - Maximowicz - wineberry - GT

 

 

 

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

Galium album L. - hedge bedstraw - GT, VL   (syn. Galium mollugo)

 

Galium aparine L. - cleavers - GT, RT

 

Galium circaezans Michx. - wild licorice - RT, NC

 

Galium triflorum Michx. - sweetscented bedstraw - GT

 

Houstonia caerulea L. - bluets or Quaker ladies - NC

 

Mitchella repens L. - partridgeberry - RT

 

 

 

Rutaceae

   
  Zanthoxylum americanum  Miller - American prickly ash - O
   
 

Salicaceae

 

 

 

Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall - cottonwood - GT, RT

 

Populus grandidentata Michx. - big-toothed aspen - GT, RT

 

 

 

Santalaceae

 

 

 

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. - bastard toadflax - RT

 

 

 

Sapindaceae (syn. Aceraceae)

 

 

 

Acer negundo L. - box elder - GT, RT, VL, VC, O

 

Acer pensylvanicum L. - striped maple - GT, RT, NC

 

Acer platanoides L. - Norway maple - GT, RT, VC

 

Acer rubrum L. - red maple - GT, RT, NC

 

Acer saccharum Marsh - sugar maple - GT, RT, NC, VL, O   (syn. Acer nigrum)

 

Acer spicatum Lam. - mountain maple - GT

 

Aesculus hippocastanum L. - horse chestnut - GT

 

 

 

Saxifragaceae

 

 

 

Micranthes virginiensis (Michx.) Small - early saxifrage - GT, RT
        
(syn. Saxifraga virginiensis)

 

Mitella diphylla L. - mitrewort or bishop's-cap - GT, RT

 

Tiarella cordifolia L. - foamflower - GT, NC

 

 

 

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

Verbascum blattaria L. - moth mullein - VL, RT

 

Verbascum thapsus L. - common mullein - GT, VL, NC

 

 

 

Solanaceae

 

 

 

Solanum carolinense L. - horse nettle - VL

 

Solanum dulcamara L. - bittersweet nighshade - GT

 

 

 

Thymelaeaceae

 

 

 

Daphne mezereum L. - paradise plant - RT, NC

 

 

 

Ulmaceae

 

 

 

Ulmus americana L. - American elm - GT, RT

 

Ulmus glabra Hudson - Scotch elm - GT

 

Ulmus rubra Muhl. - slippery elm - RT

 

 

 

Urticaceae

 

 

 

Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell - wood-nettle - GT

 

Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray - clearweed - GT, RT

 

Urtica dioica L. - stinging nettle - VL   (syn. Urtica procera, Urtica gracilis)

 

 

 

Verbenaceae

 

 

 

Verbena urticifolia L. - white vervain - VL

 

 

 

Violaceae

 

 

 

Viola blanda Willd. - sweet white violet - GT

 

Viola pubescens Aiton - downy yellow violet - RT

 

Viola rostrata Pursh - long-spurred violet - GT

 

Viola sororia Willd. - common blue violet - GT, RT

 

Viola subsinuata Greene - palmate-leaved violet - RT   (syn. Viola palmata)

 

 

 

Vitaceae

 

 

 

Ampelopsis glandulosa (Wallich) Momiyama - porcelain berry - GT, RT, VC - invasive

 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. - Virginia creeper - GT, RT, VL, VC

 

Vitis aestivalis Michx. - summer grape - GT

 

Vitis riparia Michx. - river grape or frost grape - GT, RT, VL   (syn. Viola vulpina)

 

 

 

Woodsiaceae

 

 

 

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth - northern lady fern - RT, NC

 

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. - fragile fern - GT, RT, NC

 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. - bulblet fern - GT, RT

 

 

 

 

 

*In cases where there is no consensus regarding a fern species’ scientific name,

 

the name adopted by the Flora of North America will be used here.

 

 

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Updated:  June 2022

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Images and text copyright Arieh Tal,  2017 -  2022.   All rights reserved.   ( Terms of Use )
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